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Turtles are diapsids of the adjustment Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a appropriate awkward or cartilaginous carapace developed from their ribs and acting as a shield. "Turtle" may accredit to the adjustment as a accomplished (American English) or to fresh-water and sea-dwelling testudines (British English).
The adjustment Testudines includes both actual (living) and abolished species. The age-old accepted associates of this accumulation date from 220 actor years ago, authoritative turtles one of the oldest bastard groups and a added age-old accumulation than snakes or crocodilians. Of the 356 accepted species animate today, some are awful endangered.
Turtles are ectotherms—animals frequently alleged cold-blooded—meaning that their centralized temperature varies according to the ambient environment.
However, because of their top metabolic rate, leatherback sea turtles accept a physique temperature that is acutely college than that of the surrounding water.
Turtles are classified as amniotes, forth with added reptiles, birds, and mammals. Like added amniotes, turtles breathe air and do not lay eggs underwater, although abounding breed reside in or about water.
The abstraction of turtles is alleged cheloniology, afterwards the Greek chat for turtle. It is aswell sometimes alleged testudinology, afterwards the Latin name for turtles.